Paris Agreement Country Goals

The Paris Agreement is an international treaty that aims to limit global warming to below 2 degrees Celsius by reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The agreement was signed in 2015 and has been ratified by 189 countries so far.

Each country that has ratified the Paris Agreement has submitted a Nationally Determined Contribution (NDC) outlining their individual goals for reducing emissions. The NDCs are intended to be updated every five years in order to increase the ambition of the goals over time.

The goals set by each country vary widely based on their current level of emissions, economic development, and political realities. Some countries have set ambitious goals for transitioning to renewable energy sources, while others have focused on improving energy efficiency or reducing deforestation.

For example, China, the world’s largest emitter of greenhouse gases, has pledged to peak its emissions by 2030 and increase the non-fossil fuel share of its energy mix to 20 percent by the same year. The United States, which has since withdrawn from the treaty under the Trump administration, had committed to reduce its emissions by 26 to 28 percent below 2005 levels by 2025.

India, the world’s fourth-largest emitter, has set a goal of increasing the share of non-fossil fuels in its energy mix to 40 percent by 2030. The European Union, a bloc of 27 countries, has committed to reducing its emissions by at least 40 percent below 1990 levels by 2030.

Other countries have set more modest goals. Russia, for example, has pledged to keep its emissions at or below 70 percent of 1990 levels by 2030. Saudi Arabia has committed to reducing its emissions intensity (emissions per unit of GDP) by 30 percent by 2030.

Despite the varying levels of ambition, the Paris Agreement represents a historic commitment by the world’s nations to work together to address the global threat of climate change. As countries continue to update and increase their NDCs, the hope is that the collective efforts will be sufficient to limit global warming to a safe level.

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